Ostracism, Tolerance or Recognition: Muslims in Europe

Denise Helly, Jocelyne Cesari


In the case of present day Muslims, one can note that discrimination is both direct and indirect and that it often comes from public institutions. This is the sign of a very tense general climate and of an inability or a refusal on the part of the political bodies to cancel these tensions.


Muslims of Europe; Ostracism; tolerance; recognition

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