The representation of post-conflict gender violence in Iraqi Kurdish novelistic discourse in Bahdinan

Lolav M. Hassan Alhamid

Abstract

This article explores the processes of finding a voice, learning to speak, and breaking silence around gender violence for a Kurdish woman endeavouring to resist oppression and destroy forced negative images and identities. It examines the ways in which she struggles to break imposed silences through resisting gender discrimination and telling stories of violence and exploitation, as represented in the Kurdish novelistic discourse in Bahdinan. Studying Sabri Silevanis Mariama: Ki-Jinek ji Zemanek Di (Mariama: A Woman from Another Time, 2007), the article examines the various forms and layers of violence imposed on Kurdish women by the tribal and patriarchal norms and the social and political structures within the post-conflict Kurdish society in Iraqi Kurdistan. The three-fold typological model of violence developed by the political scientist Johan Galtung is adopted in the article to explore the ways in which the personal characteristics of individuals and the political, economic, and cultural structures of society are viewed as factors affecting the generation of gendered aggression. Most importantly, for the purpose of this article, is the significant utilisation of the association of Galtungs typology with feminist studies of violence in the exploration of Kurdish womens attempt to resist marginalisation and their struggle for recognition. Moreover, Rita Felskis description and study of modern writing by women as a medium through which female political identities and collective consciousness are constructed and represented are adopted to discuss the structural and thematic properties of the text.

ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI

Temsa ?ideta cinsya pi?t?erdi gotara edebya kurd Iraqde li hera Behdan

Ev meqale berxwe dide merheley peydakirina deng fba axiftinda?ikandina bengiya li dor ?ideta cinsli cem jineke kurd a hewl dide li hember zextan ber xwe bide we huwiyet menfy dasepandji nav bibe. Meqale lh dibe ka wa jin tiko?e ku bi ra berxwedana li hember cudakariya cinsbi gotina hikay ?idet bikaran wek ku di gotara romana kurdya li Behdan ttemskirin, bengiy dasepandbi?ike. Ev meqale li ser romana SebrSilanya bi navMeryema: Ki Jinek Ji Zemanek D(2007) h dibe dikeve ddestnankirina wan awa tebeqey ciheng ?ideta li ser jina kurd y bi destdab ner e?babsalarherwiha bi destdezgeh civaksiyasy di nav civaka kurd a li Kurdistana Iraqya pi?t?erte dasepandin. Di meqelayde moda toloj stebeqeyya ?idet ku Johan Galtungzanyarsiyasetdahaye, hatiye bikaran ji bo verandina away ku taybetiy ?exsy ferdan binyad civaky siyas aborndwek fakter karter peydaba kariya cinste din. Ji bo armanc vgotar ev tolojiya Galtung ligel xebat ft li ser ?idette bikaran da ku hewla jin kurd a berxwedana li hember perawxistinvenasbervtir bibe. Herwiha, pase lola Rita Felski ya li ser niv hevrx jinan wek amrazek ji bo avakirin temskirina huwiyet siyas?ia cemawerhatine bikaran ji bo vedina xasyet metny binyadtay

ABSTRACT IN SORANI

Wekirdintund cenderle gutarnovtkurd 'aq le Badan

Em meqaleye degerr be dway ew prosaney dozewey deng, fbpeyiv ?kandinew benge ke ballbe ser tundcenderda kawe, le xebatew jine kurde da ke deyew rerrstemkarbibewe we ?unase nere be zor daseprawekan t bi?k. Ew rayane be taqdekatewe ke ew jine le xebatda be kariyan deh bo ?kandinbengiye be zor beserda sepdrawe le ray rerrewey ciyakarcendergranewey dastangeltundpawankirdin, herweku le gutarnovtda be kar hrawin le nawy Badan. Le ray xwdinewey "Meryeme Kijinek Ji Zemanek D nraw le layen SebrSlanewe, em meqaleye ew ?az rehendaney tundbe taqdekatewe ke le ra bawe hozgeraybawsalarekan bunyade siyasiyekankomellgay kurddway ?err le Kurdistan'aq da xirawnete ser jinankurdewe. Lem meqaleye da modsntaypoloj tundbekarhrawe ke le layen zanay siyasJohan Galtungewe dirust kirawe, be mebestdozewey ew rayaney ke pan karakterte kesiyekantakekan bunyade siyasabkelepurekankomellga weku fakterkarer nan drawin be ser qehrcenderewe. Giringtir layenmebestem meqaleye nandanew sudbex?e giringeye ke peywendarkrdintaypolojGaltung legell lollewey ftle gerran da be dway hewlljinankurd bo rerrenewe le hember perawxistin xebatyan bo ewey ke danyan pa binir. Herweha wesf lollewey Ra Felski le nushawrxjinan weku geyener ke le rayiyewe ?unasgelsiyasagay gi?t mbunyad denir nan dedir, be mebestgiftokirdin le ser layene bunyadtewerekandeq, be kar hrawe.

Keywords

Kurdish women; post-conflict gender violence; Kurdish novelistic discourse; Bahdinan

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References

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