Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Introduction to Special Issue - Kurdish: A critical research overview

Abstract

Investigation of the regional variation in Kurmanji, especially its varieties spoken in Turkey, has been almost entirely neglected in the existing literature on Kurdish. In addition to earlier isolated examinations of Kurmanji dialects (cf. MacKenzie, 1961; Ritter, 1971, 1976; Blau, 1975; Jastrow, 1977), native-speaker researchers have recently provided a substantial amount of dialect material across the Kurmanji-speech zone. However, a methodologically-informed evaluation of these observations into a dialect classification is yet to be undertaken. This article aims at providing an initial classification of Kurmanji-internal variation into major regional dialects, based on lexical, phonological and morphosyntactic data collected from five localities in Southeastern Turkey.

Cihengiya zimanya navxweydi kurmanciyde: tesneke seretayya zaravayan

Di nav xebat li ser zimankurdde, heta niha, vekola cudatiy devok zaravay kurmanciy bi taybetew di nav sor Tirkiyeyde, hema bi temamhatiye pi?tguhkirin. Ji bilnd xebat serbixwe y ptir li ser zaravay kurmanc(wek MacKenzie 1961; Ritter, 1971 1976; Blau, 1976; Jastrow 1977), di nav van sal dawde vekoler kurdiman qewareyeke mezin a dane materyel ji gelek zaravay kurmanciyberhev kirine. Lbel h ev vdiy berbelav bi rengekmetodoloj nehatine nirxandin ku tesneke zaravayan jbi dest bikeve. Ev meqale dil dike tesneke seretayya zaravay sereky kurmanciypk bike li ser bingehdaney peyvfonoloj rimany li pc dever ba?-rojhilatTirkiyeyberhevkir

??????? ??????? ????? ?????????: ?????????????? ???????? ?????????

????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ??? [?????????] ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????. ??????? ???? ??????????????? ??? ? ???? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? (???????? ???? ????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????) ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????. ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ???? ? ?? ??? ??????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????????.

Keywords

Historical linguistics; areal linguistics; grammatical change; Kurdish

Full Text:

PDF

References

Akin, S. (2000). Les Kurdes et le Kurdistan dans le discours scientifique turc. The Journal of Kurdish Studies, 3, 5160.

Akin, S. (2002). Discours rapport et htrognit discursive en kurde. Faits de Langue, 19, 7184.

Akin, S. (2004). La dnomination des personnes et la construction identitaire : le cas des prnoms kurdes en Turquie. Bulletin suisse de linguistique applique, 80, 27-38.

Anonby, E. (2003). Update on Luri: How Many Languages? Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 13(2), 17197.

Anonby, E. (2004/5). Kurdish or Luri? Lakis Disputed Identity in the Luristan Province of Iran. Kurdische Studien, 4/5, 722.

Asadpour, H., Louragi-Pour, J. and Qalati, M. S. (2012). Sorani Kurdish ad-dress forms: Case of Northwest Iran. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(4), 421449.

Asatrian, G. (2009). Prolegomena to the Study of the Kurds. Iran and Caucasus, 13, 158.

Aygen, G. (2007). Kurmanji Kurdish Grammar. Munchen: Lincom Europa.

Bedir Khan, E. and Lescot, R. (1970). Grammaire Kurde. Paris: Adrien Mai-sonneuve.

Bulut, C. (1997). Evliya elebis Reise von Bitlis nach Van: ein Auszug aus dem Seya-hatname. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Bulut, C. (2000). Indirectivity in Kurmanji. In L. Johanson and B. Utas (eds.), Evidentials. Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages (14784). Berlin: Mouton, 2000.

a?layan, H. (2014). Ayn? Evde Ayr? Diller: Ku?aklararas? Dil De?i?imi/E?ilimler, S?n?rlar, Olanaklar Diyarbak?r rne?i. Diyarbak?r: Diyarbak?r Sosyal Siyasal Aras?t?rmalar Enstits.

Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use. New York: Praeger.

Co?kun, V., Derince, ?. M. and Uarlar, N. (2011). Scar of Tongue: Consequences of the Ban on the Use of Mother Tongue in Education and Experiences of Kurdish Students in Turkey. Diyarbak?r: Diyarbak?r Sosyal Siyasal Aras?t?rmalar En-stits.

Crystal, D. 1997. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (2nd edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Culicover, P. and Jackendoff, R. (2005). Simpler syntax. Oxford: Oxford Uni-versity Press.

Dorleijn, M. (1996). The decay of ergativity in Kurdish. Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.

Fasold, R. W. (2005). Making Languages. In J. Cohen, K. T. McAlister, K. Rolstad, & J. MacSwan (eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (697702). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.

Fattah, I. K. (2000). Les dialectes kurdes mridionaux: tude linguistique et dialec-tologique. Louvain: Peeters.

Fattah, M. (1997). A generative grammar of Kurdish. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Amsterdam, Holland.

Franco, L., Manzini, R. and Savoia, L. (2013). Some call it article, some ezafe: Linkers as agreement. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/4393956/Some _call_it_article_some_ezafe_ Linkers_as_agreement (Accessed: 22 January, 2014).

Fromkin, V., Rodman, R. and Hyams, N. (2003). An Introduction to Language (7th ed.). Boston: Thomson/Heinle.

Gippert, J. (1996). Die historische Entwicklung der Zaza-Sprache [The histor-ical development of the Zaza language]. Ware. Pseroka Zon u Kultur Ma: D?m?li-K?rmanc-Zaza, 10, 148-154.

Gooskens, C. 2007. The contribution of linguistic factors to the intelligibility of closely related languages. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28(6), 445-467.

Gndo?du, S. (2011). The phrase structure of two Dialects of Kurmanji Kurdish: Standard Dialect and Mu? Dialect. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Bo?azii University, Turkey.

Gndo?du, S. (forthcoming). Case and Ergativity in Kurmanji. Dilbilim Ara?t?rmalar?.

Hadank, K. and Mann, O. (1932). Kurdisch-Persische Forschungen, Abteilung III, B and II: Mundarten der Grn, besonders das Kndl, Auramn und Bdschaln, bearbeitet von Karl Hadank. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Haig, G. (2001) Linguistic Diffusion in Present-day East Anatolia: From Top to Bottom. In A. Aikhenvald and R. M. W. Dixon (eds.), Areal diffusion and Genetic Inheritance. Problems in Comparative Linguistics (195-224). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haig, G. (2002). Complex predicates in Kurdish: Argument sharing, incorpo-ration, or what? Sprachtypologie Und Universalienforschung / Language Typology and Universals, 55 (1), 1548.

Haig, G. (2004a). Alignment in Kurdish. A Diachronic Perspective. Habilita-tionsschrift. Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel, Germany.

Haig, G. (2004b). The invisibilisation of Kurdish: The Other Side of Language Planning in Turkey. In S. Conermann and G. Haig (eds.) Die Kurden. Stu-dien zu ihrer Sprache, Geschichte und Kultur (121-150). Hamburg: EB Verlag.

Haig, G. (2006). Turkish Influence on Kurmanji: Evidence from the Tunceli Dialect. In L. Johanson and C. Bulut (eds.), Turkic-Iranian contact areas. Historical and linguistic aspects. (283299). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Haig, G. (2007). Grammatical Borrowing in Kurdish (Northern Group). In Y. Matras and J. Sakel (eds.), Grammatical Borrowing in Cross-linguistic Perspective (165184). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Haig, G. (2008) Alignment Change in Iranian Languages. A Construction Grammar Approach. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Haig, G. (2011). Linker, Relativizer, Nominalizer, Tense-particle: On the Ezafe in West Iranian. In F. Yap, K. Grunow-Hrsta, and J. Wrona (eds.), Nominalization in Asian Languages: Diachronic and Typological Perspectives Volume 1: Sino-Tibetan and Iranian Languages (363-390). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Haig, G. (2012). Quelques remarques sur la politique linguistique au Kurdistan dIrak et ses rpercussions lunit culturelle des Kurdes. Etudes Kurdes, XI, 123127.

Haig, G. (In print). East Anatolia as a Linguistic Area? Empirical and Concep-tual Issues. In L. Behzadi, P. Franke, G. Haig, C. Herzog, B. Hoffmann, L. Korn & S. Talabardon (eds.), Bamberger Orientstudien. Bamberg: Bamberg University Press.

Haig, G. (forthcoming a). East Anatolia. Language Contact in a Transition Zone. In R. Hickey (ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Areal Linguistics. Cam-bridge: Cambridge University Press.

Haig, G. (forthcoming b.) Deconstructing Iranian Ergativity. In J. Coon and L. Travis (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Haig, G. and Matras, Y. (2002). Kurdish linguistics: a brief overview. Sprachty-pologie Und Universalienforschung / Language Typology and Universals, 55(1), 314.

Haig, G. and pengin, E. (in print). Gender in Kurdish. Structural and Socio-cultural Aspects. In M. Hellinger and H. Motschenbacher (eds.), Gender Across Languages, Vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Haig, G. and pengin, E. (forthcoming). Kurmanji Kurdish in Turkey: Struc-ture, Varieties and Status. In C. Bulut (ed.), The Minority Languages in Tur-key. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Hassanpour, A. (1992). Nationalism and language in Kurdistan, 1918-1985. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press.

Hassanpour, A. (2001). The (Re)production of Patriarchy in Kurdish Language. In S. Mojab (ed.), The Women of a Non-state Country: The Kurds (22763). Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda.

Hassanpour, A. (2012). The indivisibility of the nation and its linguistic divi-sions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 4973.

Izady, M. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. London: Taylor & Francis.

Karimi, Y. (2007). Kurdish Ezafe constructions: Implications for DP structure. Lingua, 117, 2159-2177.

Karimi, Y. (2010). Unaccusative Transitives and The Person-Case Constraint Effects in Kurdish. Lingua, 120, 693-716.

Karimi-Doostan, G. (2005). Light verbs and structural case. Lingua, 115, 1737-1756.

Keskin, M. (2010). Zazaca zerine notlar. In ?. Arslan (ed.), Herkesin Bildi?i S?r: Dersim - Tarih, Toplum, Ekonomi, Dil ve Kltr (221-242). Istanbul: ?leti?im.

Khan, G. (2007). Grammatical Borrowing in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic. In Y. Matras and J. Sakel (eds.), Grammatical Borrowing in Cross-Linguistic Per-spective (197-214). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Korn, A. (2005). Towards a Historical Grammar of Balochi. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

Leezenberg, M. (2014). El Teremax and the Vernacularization of Medrese Learning in Kurdistan. Iranian Studies, 47(5), 713733.

Linell, P. (2005). The Written Language Bias in Linguistics. London: Routledge.

Lynch, J., Ross, M. and Crowley, T. (2011). The Oceanic Languages. London: Routledge

MacKenzie, D. N. (1961). Kurdish Dialect Studies Vol. I. Oxford: Oxford Uni-versity Press.

Mahalingappa, L. (2013). The Acquisition of Split-ergative Case Marking in Kurmanji Kurdish. In B. Edith L. and S. Stoll (eds.), The Acquisition of Er-gativity (239-270). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Mahmoudveysi, P. and Bailey, D. (2013). The Gorani Language of Zarda, a Village of West Iran. Texts, Grammar and Lexicon. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

Mahmoudveysi, P., Bailey, D., Paul, L., and Haig, G. (2012). The Gorani Lan-guage of Gawraju, a Village of West Iran. Grammar, Texts and Lexicon. Wies-baden: Reichert.

Matras, Y. (2002). Kurmanj complementation: Semantic-typological aspects in an areal perspective. Sprachtypologie Und Universalienforschung / Language Typology and Universals, 55(1), 4963.

Matras, Y. (2007). The Borrowability of Structural Categories. In Y. Matras and J. Sakel (eds.), Grammatical Borrowing in Cross-linguistic Perspective (3173). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Matras, Y. (2010). Contact, Convergence, and Typology. In R. Hickey (ed.), The Handbook of Contact Linguistics (6685). Malden/Oxford: Blackwell.

Matras, Y. (2011). Explaining Convergence and the Formation of Linguistic Areas. In H. Osama, C. Knig and H. Nakagawa (eds.), Geographical Ty-pology and Linguistic Areas (143-160). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

McCarus, E. N. (2009). Kurdish. In G. Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian Languages (587633). London: Routledge.

Mohamed, B. (2014). Code-switching: A Case Study of Kurdish-German Pre-school Bilingual Children. Frankfurt: Lang.

pengin, E. (2012a). Sociolinguistic situation of Kurdish in Turkey: Sociopo-litical factors and language use patterns. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 151180.

pengin, E. (2012b). Adpositions and Argument Indexing in the Mukri Variety of Central Kurdish: Focus on Ditransitive Constructions. Orientalia Suecana, 61, 187198.

pengin, E. (2013). Clitic/affix interactions: a corpus-based study of the person marking in the Mukri variety of Central Kurdish. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universit Sorbonne Nouvelle and Universitt Bamberg.

pengin, E. (forthcoming). The Mukri Variety of Central Kurdish: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

zo?lu, H. (2004). Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State. Albany: State Univer-sity of New York Press.

zsoy, A. S. and Trkyilmaz, Y. (2006). Front Rounded Vowels in the Sinemili Dialect of Kurmanji - a Case of Language Contact? In L. Johanson and C. Bulut (eds.), Turkic-Iranian Contact Areas Historical and Linguistic Aspects (300309). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz

Paul, L. (1998). Zazaki. Grammatik und Versuch einer Dialektologie. Wiesbaden: Reichert.

Paul, L. (2009). Zazaki. In G. Windfuhr (ed.), The Iranian Languages (545586). London: Routledge.

Romaine, S. (2000). Language in Society: An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2nd ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

Samvelian, P. (2006). A Lexicalist Account of Sorani Kurdish Prepositions. In S. Mller (ed.), Proceedings of the HPSG07 Conference. Stanford: CSLI Publi-cations..

Samvelian, P. (2007). What Sorani Kurdish Absolute Prepositions Tell Us about Cliticization. In Texas Linguistic Society IX: The Morphosyntax of Un-derrepresented Languages (263283). Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Selcan, Z. (1998). Grammatik der Zaza-Sprache. Nord Dialekt (Dersim-Dialekt), Berlin: Wissenschaft & Technik.

Sheyholislami, J., Hassanpour, A. and Skuttnab-Kangas, T. (eds.) (2012). Spe-cial Issue. The Kurdish Linguistic Landscape: Vitality, Linguicide and Resistance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217.

Sheyholislami, J. (2012). Kurdish in Iran: A case of restricted and controlled tolerance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 1947.

Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.

Talay, S. (2006/2007.) The Influence of Turkish, Kurdish and Other Neigh-bouring Languages on Anatolian Arabic. In G. Grigoro (ed.), Peripheral Arabic Dialects (179-188). Bucharest: Centre for Arab Studies.

Thackston, W. M. (n.d.). Sorani Kurdish: A reference grammar with selected readings. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~iranian/ So-rani/sorani_1_grammar.pdf (Accessed: 21 November, 2013)

Thackston, W. M. (n.d.). Kurmanji Kurdish: A reference grammar with select-ed readings. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.harvard.edu/ ~iranian/Kurmanji/ (Accessed: 21 November, 2013)

Trudgill, P. (2000). Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society (4th ed.). London; New York: Penguin.

Unger, C. (2012). Procedural semantics, metarepresentation, and some parti-cles in Behdini Kurdish. Lingua, 122(14), 1613-1635.

Wang, W. (1997). Languages or Dialects? CUHK Journal of Humanities, 1, 5462.

Zeydanl?o?lu, W. (2012). Turkeys Kurdish language policy. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 217, 99125.

Zilf. (1983). Folklor kurd ebe zarav dimilk. Hv, 1, 67-123.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.