The Kurds and Middle Eastern State of Violence: the 1980s and 2010s

Hamit Bozarslan

Abstract

Though a macro-level analysis this article examines the evolution of the Kurdish issue since the occupation of Iraq in 2003 and the Syrian crisis in 2011, underlining the necessity of a comparison between the current period and past situations, namely that of the 1980s. Kurdish actors participated from a rather weak position in the Middle-East wide conflicts during the 1980s; alliances with regional states that gave access to political and military resources ensured their durability, but a high price was paid for their transformation into subordinated players of a broader state of violence. Since 2011, the trans-border Kurdish space finds itself once again in the heart of a system of transaction based on violence, but Kurdish organisations face the new region-wide conflicts in a position of empowerment in Iraq, Syria and Turkey.

Kurd Rew?a Tund ya Rojhilata Nav: 1980yan 2010an

Ev gotar, bi ra helsengeka asta-makro, vedikole li peresa pirsgira Kurdji dema dagirba Iraqdi 2003yda qeyrana Siyeydi 2011da bi taybetbeldiki?e ser pistiya berhevdaneka di navbera serdema niha rew?a bor anku rew?a sal 80yan. Di sal 80yan da h Kurd pitir ji pozisyoneka qels lawaz be?dardijberaloziy Rojhilata Nav b; hevalbendiy li gel dewlet li herrda bikarana vkaniy siyasle?kerbo misogerkirina berdewamiya h Kurd; lvan dewletan, bi hewldan giranbuha, hi?t ku kurd bimin wekaktor bindest di nav rew?a tund ya herda. Ji 2011ve, tevgera kurd ya dersor careka din xwe di navenda pergaleka tund da dibine; lvcarrxistin kurd y li Iraq, Siye Tirkiyeyji pozisyoneka bih rervdijberiya berfireh ya heremne.

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Keywords

Kurdish movements; state of violence; Iraq; Syria; Turkey

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