Reading and feeling gender in perpetrator graffiti and photography in Turkey

Beja Protner

Abstract


During the urban clashes between Kurdish militants and Turkish state forces in 2015-2016, young politicized social media users in Istanbul witnessed and experienced political violence through their engagement with violent words and images on social media, without being anywhere near the armed clashes. These were photographs of militarized nationalist performances of masculinized domination and sexist graffiti, produced by the Turkish Special Forces and circulated in the cyberspace. Based on an ethnographic study among young educated pro-Kurdish viewers and an ethnographically situated textual analysis of the graffiti, this article illustrates the ways images are perceived in the particular cultural and sociopolitical context. It argues that the gendered meanings that relate to the core of the gendered and ethnicized structural violence in Turkey, enhance the affective cybertouchof political violence.

ABSTRACT IN KURMANJI

Xwendin û hiskirina cinsiyetê di grafîtî û wêneyên bikeran de li Tirkiyeyê

Ev meqale berê xwe dide hêlên cinsî yên rasthatinên hissî û watedar ên ligel grafîtîyên bikeran û wêneyên qadên şerê bajarî li bajarên kurdî li başûr-rojhilatê Tirkiyeyê. Di dema pêvçûnên nav bajêr di navbera mîlîtanên kurd û hêzên dewleta tirk de, salên 2015-2016, bikerên ciwan û polîtîzebûyî yên medyaya civakî li Stenbolê bûn şahîd û tecrubekerên şideta polîtîk wexta ketine ber pêla wêneyên xeşîm ên grafîtîyên cinsiyetger û performansên neteweger û mîlitarîst ên serdestiya nêrîne, ku ew wêne û grafîtî ji destê Hêzên Taybet ên Tirk derketibûn û li seranserê qada sîber hatibûn belavkirin. Ev meqale xwe li ser bingeha etnografiya bînerên ciwan û perwerî yên piştgirên kurdan û li ser bingeha tehlîla metnî ya grafîtîyan ji nezera etnografîk ve hatiye avakirin, û îdia dike ku ew sûret bi dilxwelîn û hêrseke mezin tesîr li bîneran dike ji ber wateyên xwe ên siyasî û cinsiyetperest, ku ev yek jî berê me dide kakila şideta binyadî li Tirkiyeyê. Tesîrên şer ne tiştên ne-subjektîf, pêş-gotarî, gerdûnî û tesadufî ne, belku ew di sûbjektîfiyên polîtîk-cinsî yên mirovan re derbas dibin û li ser wan têne mohrkirin ji ber çarçoveya xwe ya babsalarî û nefreta li hember jinan. Amajeyên aloz û pir cinsî rê didin rêzeke bîranîn û bibîrxistinên ku tecrubeya hissî bilind dikin.

ABSTRACT IN SORANI

Xwêndinewe û hest kirdin be cender le grafîtî û fotografî tawankarîy le Turkiya da

Em meqaleye terkîz dekat le ser rehende cenderîyekanî peywendîdarbûnî hestewerî û watadar legell grafîtî tawankarîy (Perpetrator grafiti) û fotografî da le zone bajêrrîyekanî şerr le şare kurdîyekanî başûrî rojhellatî Turkiya da. Le katî berdewamîy pêkdadane bajêrrîyekanî nêwan çekdare kurdekan û hêze dewlletîyekanî Turkiya da le nêwan sallanî 2015 bo 2016 da bekarhêneranî gencî be siyasîbûwî soşyal mîdiya bûne şahîd û ezmûnkerî siyasetêkî tundûtîj ke le rêgay bekarhênanî wênegelî tundûtîjî xonîşandane netewegera serbazîyekanî heymeney mêrsalarî û grafîtîy sêksîst, le layen hêze taybetekanî Turkiyawe berhem dehatin û le sayber speys da pexş dekiran. Le ser binemay êtnografîy temaşakaranî gencî, pêgeyiştûwî kurdgerawe û şîkarîy têkstgerayî be êtnografîy şwênga kiraw, em meqaleye pêdagirîy lewe dekat ke ew wênane be şêweyekî pirr bêz û tûrreyî karîgerîy le ser temaşakeranîyan dadenên, eweyş be hoy wata siyasîye be cenderkirawekanîyanewe ke degatewe kirrokî tundûtîjî bûnyadî le Turkiya da. Encamekanî şerr ziyatir lewey ke kesî, prê-dîskursîv, gerdûnî û herremekîy bin, be kesêtiye siyasîye be cenderkirawekanî xellk da deguzerên û be hoy çwarçêwe bawksalar û dije jinekeyanewe pêyanewe deçespên. Amaje alloz û be qûllî becenderkrawekan beşêkî bîrewerîy û peywendîyekan hoşyar dekatewe û debête hoyî ziyadbûnî ezmunî hestewerî.


Keywords


Digital Militarism; Affect; Subjectivity; Political Violence; Kurdish Issue

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References


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