Citizenship and the Indonesian Diaspora: Lessons from the South Korean and Indian Experiences

Susi Dwi Harijanti, Bilal Dewansyah, Ali Abdurahman, Wicaksana Dramanda

Abstract

The existence and movement of diasporas across the world significantly challenge the existing legal norms on citizenship and migration. The responses from law-makers from the origin countries vary. Most European, Latin America and African countries adopt dual citizenship laws. However, most countries in Asia-Pacific region, including Indonesia, do not favour dual citizenship. This is mostly because of the ideological perception of citizenship. In this sense, many countries grant special status or schemes to their diaspora (neither citizens nor residents of the country) in the form of an external quasi-citizenship based on ethnic descent, called ethnizenship by Baubk.This article, drawing on on-going research, compares the Indonesian experience with that of two other countries that have adopted quasi-citizenship schemes. India and South Korea have been chosen for comparison since both countries have particular statutes that recognise and regulate diaspora status. India created the Person of Indian Origin (PIO) card scheme in 1998 and Overseas Citizens of India (OCI) card scheme in 2003. These two schemes merged in 2015 into the Overseas Citizens of India Card Holder (OCC) scheme through the Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2015. While India adopts a regulatory model of diaspora through a citizenship law regime, the South Korean experience showsa different attitude towards their diaspora. The Korean Government has refused the Korean diasporas proposal for dual citizenship and created a semi-citizenship called Overseas Korean status through immigration law. This article discusses the Indian and South Korean experiences dealing with their diaspora in order to propose a regulatory model for Indonesias diaspora.

Keywords

Indonesia; South Korea; India; dual citizenship; diasporas; quasicitizenship

Full Text:

PDF

References

Basnur, A., (2017). Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Indonesia di Luar Negeri Untuk Kepentingan Nasional. Received from https://www.kemlu.go.id/id/lembar-informasi/Documents/ Paparan%20 Direktur %20Diplik%20-%20Forum%20Bakohumas%20Tematik%20Kemlu%202017.pdf. (14.03.2018).

Baubock, R. (2007). Stakeholder Citizenship and Transnational Political Participation: A Normative Evaluation of External Voting. Fordham Law Review, 75(5), 2396-2447.

Budiari, I. (2017, August 19). Diaspora to get state recognition from new card. The Jakarta Post.

Brubaker, R. (2005). The diaspora diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 1-19.

Dewansyah, B. (2016). Indonesian Diaspora Movement and Citizenship Law Reform: Towards "Semi Dual Citizenship" for Overseas Indonesian Descendants. paper presented in The Asian Law & Society Association (ALSA) Inaugural Conference, Faculty of Law National University of Singapore, 22 & 23 September 2016.

Dubey, M. (2013). Changing Salience of the Relationship between the Indian Diaspora and India. Diaspora Studies 1(3), 73-84.

Ember, M., Ember, C., Skoggard, I. (Eds). (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around The World, New York: Springer.

Hassall, G. (1999). Citizenship in the Asia-Pacific: A Survey of Contemporary Issues. In Alastair Davidson and Kathleen Weekle (eds.) Globalization and Citizenship in the Asia-Pacific. London-New York: Macmillan Press Ltd & St. Martins Press Inc. pp.49-70.

Harijanti, S.D. (2016). Dwi Kewarganegaraan dan Politik Hukum Kewarganegaraan Indonesia [Dual Citizenship and Indonesia Legal Policy on Citizenship]. paper presented in Workshop of Dual Citizenship and Urgency of Amendment of Law Number 12/2006 on Citizenship held by Badan Keahlian DPR RI (Expert Council of Indonesian House of Representative), Jakarta, 1 September 2016. (in Bahasa Indonesia).

Harijanti, S.D. (2017). Report on Citizenship Law: Indonesia. Country Report 2017/04.

Kumar, P. (2015). Introduction: Socio Religious and Cultural World of the Indian Diaspora. In Kumar, P. (ed). Indian Diaspora: Socio-Cultural and Religious World. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 1 18.

Lee, C. (2012a). How can you say youre Korean? Law, governmentality and national membership in South Korea. Citizenship Studies 16(1), 85 102.

Lee, C. (2012b). The Transnationalization of National Membership in the Era of Globalization: Ethnizenship and Beyond. Public Lecture in University of Washington Law School.

Lee, C. (2003). Us and them in Korean law: the creation, accommodation and exclusion of outsiders in South Korea. In Arthur Rosett, Lucie Cheng and Margaret Y.K.Woo (eds), East Asian Law Universal Norms And Local Cultures. London: Routledge Curzon. pp. 105 134.

Lee, C. (2017). Interview by second and fourth authors, tape recording, Yonsei University, Seoul South Korea, May 10.

Muhidin, S., and Utomo, A., (2015). Global Indonesian Diaspora: How many are there and where are they?, Journal of ASEAN Studies 3(2): 93101.

Naujoks, D. (2015). The Securitization of Dual Citizenship. National Security Concerns and The Making of The Overseas Citizenship of India. Diaspora Studies 8(1), 18 36.

Sahai, P. S. (2013). Indias Engagement with Diaspora: Government Communication, Platform, and Structure. Diaspora Studies 6(1), 50 60.

Santoso, M. I. (2014). Diaspora, Globalisme, Keamanan dan Keimigrasian [Diaspora, Globalism, Security and Immigration]. Bandung: Pustaka Reka Cipta. (in Bahasa Indonesia).

Tan, E., Cullamar, Phil., (1993). The Indonesian Diaspora and Philippine-Indonesian Relations, First Quarter 41(1),38-50.

World Bank Group (2016), Migration and Remittances Fact-book 2016. Received from https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPROSPECTS/Resources/334934-1199807908806/ 4549025-1450455807487/Factbookpart1.pdf. Accessed: 14.03.2018.

Xavier, C. (2011). Experimenting with Diasporic Incorporation: The Overseas Citizenship of India. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 17(1), 34 53.

Yoon, I. (2007a). A Comparison of the South and North Korean Policy of Overseas Koreans, in Korean Diaspora and Strategies of Global Networking. Korean and Korean American Studies Bulletin, 16 (1), 80-99.

Yoon, I. (2007b). Introduction, in Korean Diaspora and Strategies of Global Networking. Korean and Korean American Studies Bulletin, 16 (1), vii-x.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.